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librosa.mela_to_svara(mela, abbr=True, unicode=True)[source]

Spell the Carnatic svara names for a given melakarta raga

This function exists to resolve enharmonic equivalences between pitch classes:

  • Ri2 / Ga1

  • Ri3 / Ga2

  • Dha2 / Ni1

  • Dha3 / Ni2

For svara outside the raga, names are chosen to preserve orderings so that all Ri precede all Ga, and all Dha precede all Ni.

melastr or int

the name or numerical index of the melakarta raga


If True, use single-letter svara names: S, R, G, …

If False, use full names: Sa, Ri, Ga, …


If True, use unicode symbols for numberings, e.g., Ri₁

If False, use low-order ASCII, e.g., Ri1.

svaralist of strings

The svara names for each of the 12 pitch classes.


Melakarta #1 (Kanakangi) uses R1, G1, D1, N1

>>> librosa.mela_to_svara(1)
['S', 'R₁', 'G₁', 'G₂', 'G₃', 'M₁', 'M₂', 'P', 'D₁', 'N₁', 'N₂', 'N₃']

#19 (Jhankaradhwani) uses R2 and G2 so the third svara are Ri:

>>> librosa.mela_to_svara(19)
['S', 'R₁', 'R₂', 'G₂', 'G₃', 'M₁', 'M₂', 'P', 'D₁', 'N₁', 'N₂', 'N₃']

#31 (Yagapriya) uses R3 and G3, so third and fourth svara are Ri:

>>> librosa.mela_to_svara(31)
['S', 'R₁', 'R₂', 'R₃', 'G₃', 'M₁', 'M₂', 'P', 'D₁', 'N₁', 'N₂', 'N₃']

#34 (Vagadheeswari) uses D2 and N2, so Ni1 becomes Dha2:

>>> librosa.mela_to_svara(34)
['S', 'R₁', 'R₂', 'R₃', 'G₃', 'M₁', 'M₂', 'P', 'D₁', 'D₂', 'N₂', 'N₃']

#36 (Chalanatta) uses D3 and N3, so Ni2 becomes Dha3:

>>> librosa.mela_to_svara(36)
['S', 'R₁', 'R₂', 'R₃', 'G₃', 'M₁', 'M₂', 'P', 'D₁', 'D₂', 'D₃', 'N₃']

# You can also query by raga name instead of index:

>>> librosa.mela_to_svara('chalanatta')
['S', 'R₁', 'R₂', 'R₃', 'G₃', 'M₁', 'M₂', 'P', 'D₁', 'D₂', 'D₃', 'N₃']