Source code for librosa.filters

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Filters
=======

Filter bank construction
------------------------
.. autosummary::
    :toctree: generated/

    mel
    chroma
    wavelet
    semitone_filterbank

Window functions
----------------
.. autosummary::
    :toctree: generated/

    window_bandwidth
    get_window

Miscellaneous
-------------
.. autosummary::
    :toctree: generated/

    wavelet_lengths
    cq_to_chroma
    mr_frequencies
    window_sumsquare
    diagonal_filter

Deprecated
----------
.. autosummary::
    :toctree: generated/

    constant_q
    constant_q_lengths

"""
import warnings

import numpy as np
import scipy
import scipy.signal
import scipy.ndimage

from numba import jit

from ._cache import cache
from . import util
from .util.exceptions import ParameterError
from .util.decorators import deprecated

from .core.convert import note_to_hz, hz_to_midi, midi_to_hz, hz_to_octs
from .core.convert import fft_frequencies, mel_frequencies

__all__ = [
    "mel",
    "chroma",
    "constant_q",
    "constant_q_lengths",
    "cq_to_chroma",
    "window_bandwidth",
    "get_window",
    "mr_frequencies",
    "semitone_filterbank",
    "window_sumsquare",
    "diagonal_filter",
    "wavelet",
    "wavelet_lengths",
]

# Dictionary of window function bandwidths

WINDOW_BANDWIDTHS = {
    "bart": 1.3334961334912805,
    "barthann": 1.4560255965133932,
    "bartlett": 1.3334961334912805,
    "bkh": 2.0045975283585014,
    "black": 1.7269681554262326,
    "blackharr": 2.0045975283585014,
    "blackman": 1.7269681554262326,
    "blackmanharris": 2.0045975283585014,
    "blk": 1.7269681554262326,
    "bman": 1.7859588613860062,
    "bmn": 1.7859588613860062,
    "bohman": 1.7859588613860062,
    "box": 1.0,
    "boxcar": 1.0,
    "brt": 1.3334961334912805,
    "brthan": 1.4560255965133932,
    "bth": 1.4560255965133932,
    "cosine": 1.2337005350199792,
    "flat": 2.7762255046484143,
    "flattop": 2.7762255046484143,
    "flt": 2.7762255046484143,
    "halfcosine": 1.2337005350199792,
    "ham": 1.3629455320350348,
    "hamm": 1.3629455320350348,
    "hamming": 1.3629455320350348,
    "han": 1.50018310546875,
    "hann": 1.50018310546875,
    "nut": 1.9763500280946082,
    "nutl": 1.9763500280946082,
    "nuttall": 1.9763500280946082,
    "ones": 1.0,
    "par": 1.9174603174603191,
    "parz": 1.9174603174603191,
    "parzen": 1.9174603174603191,
    "rect": 1.0,
    "rectangular": 1.0,
    "tri": 1.3331706523555851,
    "triang": 1.3331706523555851,
    "triangle": 1.3331706523555851,
}


[docs]@cache(level=10) def mel( *, sr, n_fft, n_mels=128, fmin=0.0, fmax=None, htk=False, norm="slaney", dtype=np.float32, ): """Create a Mel filter-bank. This produces a linear transformation matrix to project FFT bins onto Mel-frequency bins. Parameters ---------- sr : number > 0 [scalar] sampling rate of the incoming signal n_fft : int > 0 [scalar] number of FFT components n_mels : int > 0 [scalar] number of Mel bands to generate fmin : float >= 0 [scalar] lowest frequency (in Hz) fmax : float >= 0 [scalar] highest frequency (in Hz). If `None`, use ``fmax = sr / 2.0`` htk : bool [scalar] use HTK formula instead of Slaney norm : {None, 'slaney', or number} [scalar] If 'slaney', divide the triangular mel weights by the width of the mel band (area normalization). If numeric, use `librosa.util.normalize` to normalize each filter by to unit l_p norm. See `librosa.util.normalize` for a full description of supported norm values (including `+-np.inf`). Otherwise, leave all the triangles aiming for a peak value of 1.0 dtype : np.dtype The data type of the output basis. By default, uses 32-bit (single-precision) floating point. Returns ------- M : np.ndarray [shape=(n_mels, 1 + n_fft/2)] Mel transform matrix See Also -------- librosa.util.normalize Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. Examples -------- >>> melfb = librosa.filters.mel(sr=22050, n_fft=2048) >>> melfb array([[ 0. , 0.016, ..., 0. , 0. ], [ 0. , 0. , ..., 0. , 0. ], ..., [ 0. , 0. , ..., 0. , 0. ], [ 0. , 0. , ..., 0. , 0. ]]) Clip the maximum frequency to 8KHz >>> librosa.filters.mel(sr=22050, n_fft=2048, fmax=8000) array([[ 0. , 0.02, ..., 0. , 0. ], [ 0. , 0. , ..., 0. , 0. ], ..., [ 0. , 0. , ..., 0. , 0. ], [ 0. , 0. , ..., 0. , 0. ]]) >>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> fig, ax = plt.subplots() >>> img = librosa.display.specshow(melfb, x_axis='linear', ax=ax) >>> ax.set(ylabel='Mel filter', title='Mel filter bank') >>> fig.colorbar(img, ax=ax) """ if fmax is None: fmax = float(sr) / 2 # Initialize the weights n_mels = int(n_mels) weights = np.zeros((n_mels, int(1 + n_fft // 2)), dtype=dtype) # Center freqs of each FFT bin fftfreqs = fft_frequencies(sr=sr, n_fft=n_fft) # 'Center freqs' of mel bands - uniformly spaced between limits mel_f = mel_frequencies(n_mels + 2, fmin=fmin, fmax=fmax, htk=htk) fdiff = np.diff(mel_f) ramps = np.subtract.outer(mel_f, fftfreqs) for i in range(n_mels): # lower and upper slopes for all bins lower = -ramps[i] / fdiff[i] upper = ramps[i + 2] / fdiff[i + 1] # .. then intersect them with each other and zero weights[i] = np.maximum(0, np.minimum(lower, upper)) if norm == "slaney": # Slaney-style mel is scaled to be approx constant energy per channel enorm = 2.0 / (mel_f[2 : n_mels + 2] - mel_f[:n_mels]) weights *= enorm[:, np.newaxis] else: weights = util.normalize(weights, norm=norm, axis=-1) # Only check weights if f_mel[0] is positive if not np.all((mel_f[:-2] == 0) | (weights.max(axis=1) > 0)): # This means we have an empty channel somewhere warnings.warn( "Empty filters detected in mel frequency basis. " "Some channels will produce empty responses. " "Try increasing your sampling rate (and fmax) or " "reducing n_mels.", stacklevel=2, ) return weights
[docs]@cache(level=10) def chroma( *, sr, n_fft, n_chroma=12, tuning=0.0, ctroct=5.0, octwidth=2, norm=2, base_c=True, dtype=np.float32, ): """Create a chroma filter bank. This creates a linear transformation matrix to project FFT bins onto chroma bins (i.e. pitch classes). Parameters ---------- sr : number > 0 [scalar] audio sampling rate n_fft : int > 0 [scalar] number of FFT bins n_chroma : int > 0 [scalar] number of chroma bins tuning : float Tuning deviation from A440 in fractions of a chroma bin. ctroct : float > 0 [scalar] octwidth : float > 0 or None [scalar] ``ctroct`` and ``octwidth`` specify a dominance window: a Gaussian weighting centered on ``ctroct`` (in octs, A0 = 27.5Hz) and with a gaussian half-width of ``octwidth``. Set ``octwidth`` to `None` to use a flat weighting. norm : float > 0 or np.inf Normalization factor for each filter base_c : bool If True, the filter bank will start at 'C'. If False, the filter bank will start at 'A'. dtype : np.dtype The data type of the output basis. By default, uses 32-bit (single-precision) floating point. Returns ------- wts : ndarray [shape=(n_chroma, 1 + n_fft / 2)] Chroma filter matrix See Also -------- librosa.util.normalize librosa.feature.chroma_stft Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. Examples -------- Build a simple chroma filter bank >>> chromafb = librosa.filters.chroma(sr=22050, n_fft=4096) array([[ 1.689e-05, 3.024e-04, ..., 4.639e-17, 5.327e-17], [ 1.716e-05, 2.652e-04, ..., 2.674e-25, 3.176e-25], ..., [ 1.578e-05, 3.619e-04, ..., 8.577e-06, 9.205e-06], [ 1.643e-05, 3.355e-04, ..., 1.474e-10, 1.636e-10]]) Use quarter-tones instead of semitones >>> librosa.filters.chroma(sr=22050, n_fft=4096, n_chroma=24) array([[ 1.194e-05, 2.138e-04, ..., 6.297e-64, 1.115e-63], [ 1.206e-05, 2.009e-04, ..., 1.546e-79, 2.929e-79], ..., [ 1.162e-05, 2.372e-04, ..., 6.417e-38, 9.923e-38], [ 1.180e-05, 2.260e-04, ..., 4.697e-50, 7.772e-50]]) Equally weight all octaves >>> librosa.filters.chroma(sr=22050, n_fft=4096, octwidth=None) array([[ 3.036e-01, 2.604e-01, ..., 2.445e-16, 2.809e-16], [ 3.084e-01, 2.283e-01, ..., 1.409e-24, 1.675e-24], ..., [ 2.836e-01, 3.116e-01, ..., 4.520e-05, 4.854e-05], [ 2.953e-01, 2.888e-01, ..., 7.768e-10, 8.629e-10]]) >>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> fig, ax = plt.subplots() >>> img = librosa.display.specshow(chromafb, x_axis='linear', ax=ax) >>> ax.set(ylabel='Chroma filter', title='Chroma filter bank') >>> fig.colorbar(img, ax=ax) """ wts = np.zeros((n_chroma, n_fft)) # Get the FFT bins, not counting the DC component frequencies = np.linspace(0, sr, n_fft, endpoint=False)[1:] frqbins = n_chroma * hz_to_octs( frequencies, tuning=tuning, bins_per_octave=n_chroma ) # make up a value for the 0 Hz bin = 1.5 octaves below bin 1 # (so chroma is 50% rotated from bin 1, and bin width is broad) frqbins = np.concatenate(([frqbins[0] - 1.5 * n_chroma], frqbins)) binwidthbins = np.concatenate((np.maximum(frqbins[1:] - frqbins[:-1], 1.0), [1])) D = np.subtract.outer(frqbins, np.arange(0, n_chroma, dtype="d")).T n_chroma2 = np.round(float(n_chroma) / 2) # Project into range -n_chroma/2 .. n_chroma/2 # add on fixed offset of 10*n_chroma to ensure all values passed to # rem are positive D = np.remainder(D + n_chroma2 + 10 * n_chroma, n_chroma) - n_chroma2 # Gaussian bumps - 2*D to make them narrower wts = np.exp(-0.5 * (2 * D / np.tile(binwidthbins, (n_chroma, 1))) ** 2) # normalize each column wts = util.normalize(wts, norm=norm, axis=0) # Maybe apply scaling for fft bins if octwidth is not None: wts *= np.tile( np.exp(-0.5 * (((frqbins / n_chroma - ctroct) / octwidth) ** 2)), (n_chroma, 1), ) if base_c: wts = np.roll(wts, -3 * (n_chroma // 12), axis=0) # remove aliasing columns, copy to ensure row-contiguity return np.ascontiguousarray(wts[:, : int(1 + n_fft / 2)], dtype=dtype)
def __float_window(window_spec): """Decorator function for windows with fractional input. This function guarantees that for fractional ``x``, the following hold: 1. ``__float_window(window_function)(x)`` has length ``np.ceil(x)`` 2. all values from ``np.floor(x)`` are set to 0. For integer-valued ``x``, there should be no change in behavior. """ def _wrap(n, *args, **kwargs): """The wrapped window""" n_min, n_max = int(np.floor(n)), int(np.ceil(n)) window = get_window(window_spec, n_min) if len(window) < n_max: window = np.pad(window, [(0, n_max - len(window))], mode="constant") window[n_min:] = 0.0 return window return _wrap
[docs]@deprecated(version="0.9.0", version_removed="1.0") def constant_q( *, sr, fmin=None, n_bins=84, bins_per_octave=12, window="hann", filter_scale=1, pad_fft=True, norm=1, dtype=np.complex64, gamma=0, **kwargs, ): r"""Construct a constant-Q basis. This function constructs a filter bank similar to Morlet wavelets, where complex exponentials are windowed to different lengths such that the number of cycles remains fixed for all frequencies. By default, a Hann window (rather than the Gaussian window of Morlet wavelets) is used, but this can be controlled by the ``window`` parameter. Frequencies are spaced geometrically, increasing by a factor of ``(2**(1./bins_per_octave))`` at each successive band. .. warning:: This function is deprecated as of v0.9 and will be removed in 1.0. See `librosa.filters.wavelet`. Parameters ---------- sr : number > 0 [scalar] Audio sampling rate fmin : float > 0 [scalar] Minimum frequency bin. Defaults to `C1 ~= 32.70` n_bins : int > 0 [scalar] Number of frequencies. Defaults to 7 octaves (84 bins). bins_per_octave : int > 0 [scalar] Number of bins per octave window : string, tuple, number, or function Windowing function to apply to filters. filter_scale : float > 0 [scalar] Scale of filter windows. Small values (<1) use shorter windows for higher temporal resolution. pad_fft : boolean Center-pad all filters up to the nearest integral power of 2. By default, padding is done with zeros, but this can be overridden by setting the ``mode=`` field in *kwargs*. norm : {inf, -inf, 0, float > 0} Type of norm to use for basis function normalization. See librosa.util.normalize gamma : number >= 0 Bandwidth offset for variable-Q transforms. ``gamma=0`` produces a constant-Q filterbank. dtype : np.dtype The data type of the output basis. By default, uses 64-bit (single precision) complex floating point. **kwargs : additional keyword arguments Arguments to `np.pad()` when ``pad==True``. Returns ------- filters : np.ndarray, ``len(filters) == n_bins`` ``filters[i]`` is ``i``\ th time-domain CQT basis filter lengths : np.ndarray, ``len(lengths) == n_bins`` The (fractional) length of each filter Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. See Also -------- wavelet constant_q_lengths librosa.cqt librosa.vqt librosa.util.normalize Examples -------- Use a shorter window for each filter >>> basis, lengths = librosa.filters.constant_q(sr=22050, filter_scale=0.5) Plot one octave of filters in time and frequency >>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> basis, lengths = librosa.filters.constant_q(sr=22050) >>> fig, ax = plt.subplots(nrows=2, figsize=(10, 6)) >>> notes = librosa.midi_to_note(np.arange(24, 24 + len(basis))) >>> for i, (f, n) in enumerate(zip(basis, notes[:12])): ... f_scale = librosa.util.normalize(f) / 2 ... ax[0].plot(i + f_scale.real) ... ax[0].plot(i + f_scale.imag, linestyle=':') >>> ax[0].set(yticks=np.arange(len(notes[:12])), yticklabels=notes[:12], ... ylabel='CQ filters', ... title='CQ filters (one octave, time domain)', ... xlabel='Time (samples at 22050 Hz)') >>> ax[0].legend(['Real', 'Imaginary']) >>> F = np.abs(np.fft.fftn(basis, axes=[-1])) >>> # Keep only the positive frequencies >>> F = F[:, :(1 + F.shape[1] // 2)] >>> librosa.display.specshow(F, x_axis='linear', y_axis='cqt_note', ax=ax[1]) >>> ax[1].set(ylabel='CQ filters', title='CQ filter magnitudes (frequency domain)') """ if fmin is None: fmin = note_to_hz("C1") # Pass-through parameters to get the filter lengths lengths = constant_q_lengths( sr=sr, fmin=fmin, n_bins=n_bins, bins_per_octave=bins_per_octave, window=window, filter_scale=filter_scale, gamma=gamma, ) freqs = fmin * (2.0 ** (np.arange(n_bins, dtype=float) / bins_per_octave)) # Build the filters filters = [] for ilen, freq in zip(lengths, freqs): # Build the filter: note, length will be ceil(ilen) sig = util.phasor( np.arange(-ilen // 2, ilen // 2, dtype=float) * 2 * np.pi * freq / sr ) # Apply the windowing function sig = sig * __float_window(window)(len(sig)) # Normalize sig = util.normalize(sig, norm=norm) filters.append(sig) # Pad and stack max_len = max(lengths) if pad_fft: max_len = int(2.0 ** (np.ceil(np.log2(max_len)))) else: max_len = int(np.ceil(max_len)) filters = np.asarray( [util.pad_center(filt, size=max_len, **kwargs) for filt in filters], dtype=dtype ) return filters, np.asarray(lengths)
[docs]@deprecated(version="0.9.0", version_removed="1.0") @cache(level=10) def constant_q_lengths( *, sr, fmin, n_bins=84, bins_per_octave=12, window="hann", filter_scale=1, gamma=0 ): r"""Return length of each filter in a constant-Q basis. .. warning:: This function is deprecated as of v0.9 and will be removed in 1.0. See `librosa.filters.wavelet_lengths`. Parameters ---------- sr : number > 0 [scalar] Audio sampling rate fmin : float > 0 [scalar] Minimum frequency bin. n_bins : int > 0 [scalar] Number of frequencies. Defaults to 7 octaves (84 bins). bins_per_octave : int > 0 [scalar] Number of bins per octave window : str or callable Window function to use on filters filter_scale : float > 0 [scalar] Resolution of filter windows. Larger values use longer windows. gamma : number >= 0 Bandwidth offset for variable-Q transforms. ``gamma=0`` produces a constant-Q filterbank. Returns ------- lengths : np.ndarray The length of each filter. Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. See Also -------- wavelet_lengths """ if fmin <= 0: raise ParameterError("fmin must be strictly positive") if bins_per_octave <= 0: raise ParameterError("bins_per_octave must be positive") if filter_scale <= 0: raise ParameterError("filter_scale must be positive") if n_bins <= 0 or not isinstance(n_bins, (int, np.integer)): raise ParameterError("n_bins must be a positive integer") # Compute the frequencies freq = fmin * (2.0 ** (np.arange(n_bins, dtype=float) / bins_per_octave)) # Q should be capitalized here, so we suppress the name warning # pylint: disable=invalid-name # # Balance filter bandwidths alpha = (2.0 ** (2 / bins_per_octave) - 1) / (2.0 ** (2 / bins_per_octave) + 1) Q = float(filter_scale) / alpha if max(freq * (1 + 0.5 * window_bandwidth(window) / Q)) > sr / 2.0: raise ParameterError( f"Maximum filter frequency={max(freq):.2f} would exceed Nyquist={sr/2}" ) # Convert frequencies to filter lengths lengths = Q * sr / (freq + gamma / alpha) return lengths
[docs]@cache(level=10) def wavelet_lengths( *, freqs, sr=22050, window="hann", filter_scale=1, gamma=0, alpha=None ): """Return length of each filter in a wavelet basis. Parameters ---------- freqs : np.ndarray (positive) Center frequencies of the filters (in Hz). Must be in ascending order. sr : number > 0 [scalar] Audio sampling rate window : str or callable Window function to use on filters filter_scale : float > 0 [scalar] Resolution of filter windows. Larger values use longer windows. gamma : number >= 0 [scalar, optional] Bandwidth offset for determining filter lengths, as used in Variable-Q transforms. Bandwidth for the k'th filter is determined by:: B[k] = alpha[k] * freqs[k] + gamma ``alpha[k]`` is twice the relative difference between ``freqs[k+1]`` and ``freqs[k-1]``:: alpha[k] = (freqs[k+1]-freqs[k-1]) / (freqs[k+1]+freqs[k-1]) If ``freqs`` follows a geometric progression (as in CQT and VQT), the vector ``alpha`` is constant and such that:: (1 + alpha) * freqs[k-1] = (1 - alpha) * freqs[k+1] Furthermore, if ``gamma=0`` (default), ``alpha`` is such that even-``k`` and odd-``k`` filters are interleaved:: freqs[k-1] + B[k-1] = freqs[k+1] - B[k+1] If ``gamma=None`` is specified, then ``gamma`` is computed such that each filter has bandwidth proportional to the equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) at frequency ``freqs[k]``:: gamma[k] = 24.7 * alpha[k] / 0.108 as derived by [#]_. .. [#] Glasberg, Brian R., and Brian CJ Moore. "Derivation of auditory filter shapes from notched-noise data." Hearing research 47.1-2 (1990): 103-138. alpha : number > 0 [optional] If only one frequency is provided (``len(freqs)==1``), then filter bandwidth cannot be computed. In that case, the ``alpha`` parameter described above can be explicitly specified here. If two or more frequencies are provided, this parameter is ignored. Returns ------- lengths : np.ndarray The length of each filter. f_cutoff : float The lowest frequency at which all filters' main lobes have decayed by at least 3dB. This second output serves in cqt and vqt to ensure that all wavelet bands remain below the Nyquist frequency. Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. Raises ------ ParameterError - If ``filter_scale`` is not strictly positive - If ``gamma`` is a negative number - If any frequencies are <= 0 - If the frequency array is not sorted in ascending order """ freqs = np.asarray(freqs) if filter_scale <= 0: raise ParameterError(f"filter_scale={filter_scale} must be positive") if gamma is not None and gamma < 0: raise ParameterError(f"gamma={gamma} must be non-negative") if np.any(freqs <= 0): raise ParameterError("frequencies must be strictly positive") if len(freqs) > 1 and np.any(freqs[:-1] > freqs[1:]): raise ParameterError( f"Frequency array={freqs} must be in strictly ascending order" ) # We need at least 2 frequencies to infer alpha if len(freqs) > 1: # Approximate the local octave resolution bpo = np.empty(len(freqs)) logf = np.log2(freqs) bpo[0] = 1 / (logf[1] - logf[0]) bpo[-1] = 1 / (logf[-1] - logf[-2]) bpo[1:-1] = 2 / (logf[2:] - logf[:-2]) alpha = (2.0 ** (2 / bpo) - 1) / (2.0 ** (2 / bpo) + 1) elif alpha is None: raise ParameterError( "Cannot construct a wavelet basis for a single frequency if alpha is not provided" ) if gamma is None: gamma = alpha * 24.7 / 0.108 # Q should be capitalized here, so we suppress the name warning # pylint: disable=invalid-name Q = float(filter_scale) / alpha # How far up does our highest frequency reach? f_cutoff = max(freqs * (1 + 0.5 * window_bandwidth(window) / Q) + 0.5 * gamma) # Convert frequencies to filter lengths lengths = Q * sr / (freqs + gamma / alpha) return lengths, f_cutoff
[docs]@cache(level=10) def wavelet( *, freqs, sr=22050, window="hann", filter_scale=1, pad_fft=True, norm=1, dtype=np.complex64, gamma=0, alpha=None, **kwargs, ): """Construct a wavelet basis using windowed complex sinusoids. This function constructs a wavelet filterbank at a specified set of center frequencies. Parameters ---------- freqs : np.ndarray (positive) Center frequencies of the filters (in Hz). Must be in ascending order. sr : number > 0 [scalar] Audio sampling rate window : string, tuple, number, or function Windowing function to apply to filters. filter_scale : float > 0 [scalar] Scale of filter windows. Small values (<1) use shorter windows for higher temporal resolution. pad_fft : boolean Center-pad all filters up to the nearest integral power of 2. By default, padding is done with zeros, but this can be overridden by setting the ``mode=`` field in *kwargs*. norm : {inf, -inf, 0, float > 0} Type of norm to use for basis function normalization. See librosa.util.normalize gamma : number >= 0 Bandwidth offset for variable-Q transforms. dtype : np.dtype The data type of the output basis. By default, uses 64-bit (single precision) complex floating point. alpha : number > 0 [optional] If only one frequency is provided (``len(freqs)==1``), then filter bandwidth cannot be computed. In that case, the ``alpha`` parameter described above can be explicitly specified here. If two or more frequencies are provided, this parameter is ignored. **kwargs : additional keyword arguments Arguments to `np.pad()` when ``pad==True``. Returns ------- filters : np.ndarray, ``len(filters) == n_bins`` each ``filters[i]`` is a (complex) time-domain filter lengths : np.ndarray, ``len(lengths) == n_bins`` The (fractional) length of each filter in samples Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. See Also -------- wavelet_lengths librosa.cqt librosa.vqt librosa.util.normalize Examples -------- Create a constant-Q basis >>> freqs = librosa.cqt_frequencies(n_bins=84, fmin=librosa.note_to_hz('C1')) >>> basis, lengths = librosa.filters.wavelet(freqs=freqs, sr=22050) Plot one octave of filters in time and frequency >>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> basis, lengths = librosa.filters.wavelet(freqs=freqs, sr=22050) >>> fig, ax = plt.subplots(nrows=2, figsize=(10, 6)) >>> notes = librosa.midi_to_note(np.arange(24, 24 + len(basis))) >>> for i, (f, n) in enumerate(zip(basis, notes[:12])): ... f_scale = librosa.util.normalize(f) / 2 ... ax[0].plot(i + f_scale.real) ... ax[0].plot(i + f_scale.imag, linestyle=':') >>> ax[0].set(yticks=np.arange(len(notes[:12])), yticklabels=notes[:12], ... ylabel='CQ filters', ... title='CQ filters (one octave, time domain)', ... xlabel='Time (samples at 22050 Hz)') >>> ax[0].legend(['Real', 'Imaginary']) >>> F = np.abs(np.fft.fftn(basis, axes=[-1])) >>> # Keep only the positive frequencies >>> F = F[:, :(1 + F.shape[1] // 2)] >>> librosa.display.specshow(F, x_axis='linear', y_axis='cqt_note', ax=ax[1]) >>> ax[1].set(ylabel='CQ filters', title='CQ filter magnitudes (frequency domain)') """ # Pass-through parameters to get the filter lengths lengths, _ = wavelet_lengths( freqs=freqs, sr=sr, window=window, filter_scale=filter_scale, gamma=gamma, alpha=alpha, ) # Build the filters filters = [] for ilen, freq in zip(lengths, freqs): # Build the filter: note, length will be ceil(ilen) sig = util.phasor( np.arange(-ilen // 2, ilen // 2, dtype=float) * 2 * np.pi * freq / sr ) # Apply the windowing function sig *= __float_window(window)(len(sig)) # Normalize sig = util.normalize(sig, norm=norm) filters.append(sig) # Pad and stack max_len = max(lengths) if pad_fft: max_len = int(2.0 ** (np.ceil(np.log2(max_len)))) else: max_len = int(np.ceil(max_len)) filters = np.asarray( [util.pad_center(filt, size=max_len, **kwargs) for filt in filters], dtype=dtype ) return filters, lengths
[docs]@cache(level=10) def cq_to_chroma( n_input, *, bins_per_octave=12, n_chroma=12, fmin=None, window=None, base_c=True, dtype=np.float32, ): """Construct a linear transformation matrix to map Constant-Q bins onto chroma bins (i.e., pitch classes). Parameters ---------- n_input : int > 0 [scalar] Number of input components (CQT bins) bins_per_octave : int > 0 [scalar] How many bins per octave in the CQT n_chroma : int > 0 [scalar] Number of output bins (per octave) in the chroma fmin : None or float > 0 Center frequency of the first constant-Q channel. Default: 'C1' ~= 32.7 Hz window : None or np.ndarray If provided, the cq_to_chroma filter bank will be convolved with ``window``. base_c : bool If True, the first chroma bin will start at 'C' If False, the first chroma bin will start at 'A' dtype : np.dtype The data type of the output basis. By default, uses 32-bit (single-precision) floating point. Returns ------- cq_to_chroma : np.ndarray [shape=(n_chroma, n_input)] Transformation matrix: ``Chroma = np.dot(cq_to_chroma, CQT)`` Raises ------ ParameterError If ``n_input`` is not an integer multiple of ``n_chroma`` Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. Examples -------- Get a CQT, and wrap bins to chroma >>> y, sr = librosa.load(librosa.ex('trumpet')) >>> CQT = np.abs(librosa.cqt(y, sr=sr)) >>> chroma_map = librosa.filters.cq_to_chroma(CQT.shape[0]) >>> chromagram = chroma_map.dot(CQT) >>> # Max-normalize each time step >>> chromagram = librosa.util.normalize(chromagram, axis=0) >>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> fig, ax = plt.subplots(nrows=3, sharex=True) >>> imgcq = librosa.display.specshow(librosa.amplitude_to_db(CQT, ... ref=np.max), ... y_axis='cqt_note', x_axis='time', ... ax=ax[0]) >>> ax[0].set(title='CQT Power') >>> ax[0].label_outer() >>> librosa.display.specshow(chromagram, y_axis='chroma', x_axis='time', ... ax=ax[1]) >>> ax[1].set(title='Chroma (wrapped CQT)') >>> ax[1].label_outer() >>> chroma = librosa.feature.chroma_stft(y=y, sr=sr) >>> imgchroma = librosa.display.specshow(chroma, y_axis='chroma', x_axis='time', ax=ax[2]) >>> ax[2].set(title='librosa.feature.chroma_stft') """ # How many fractional bins are we merging? n_merge = float(bins_per_octave) / n_chroma if fmin is None: fmin = note_to_hz("C1") if np.mod(n_merge, 1) != 0: raise ParameterError( "Incompatible CQ merge: " "input bins must be an " "integer multiple of output bins." ) # Tile the identity to merge fractional bins cq_to_ch = np.repeat(np.eye(n_chroma), n_merge, axis=1) # Roll it left to center on the target bin cq_to_ch = np.roll(cq_to_ch, -int(n_merge // 2), axis=1) # How many octaves are we repeating? n_octaves = np.ceil(float(n_input) / bins_per_octave) # Repeat and trim cq_to_ch = np.tile(cq_to_ch, int(n_octaves))[:, :n_input] # What's the note number of the first bin in the CQT? # midi uses 12 bins per octave here midi_0 = np.mod(hz_to_midi(fmin), 12) if base_c: # rotate to C roll = midi_0 else: # rotate to A roll = midi_0 - 9 # Adjust the roll in terms of how many chroma we want out # We need to be careful with rounding here roll = int(np.round(roll * (n_chroma / 12.0))) # Apply the roll cq_to_ch = np.roll(cq_to_ch, roll, axis=0).astype(dtype) if window is not None: cq_to_ch = scipy.signal.convolve(cq_to_ch, np.atleast_2d(window), mode="same") return cq_to_ch
[docs]@cache(level=10) def window_bandwidth(window, n=1000): """Get the equivalent noise bandwidth of a window function. Parameters ---------- window : callable or string A window function, or the name of a window function. Examples: - scipy.signal.hann - 'boxcar' n : int > 0 The number of coefficients to use in estimating the window bandwidth Returns ------- bandwidth : float The equivalent noise bandwidth (in FFT bins) of the given window function Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. See Also -------- get_window """ if hasattr(window, "__name__"): key = window.__name__ else: key = window if key not in WINDOW_BANDWIDTHS: win = get_window(window, n) WINDOW_BANDWIDTHS[key] = n * np.sum(win ** 2) / np.sum(np.abs(win)) ** 2 return WINDOW_BANDWIDTHS[key]
[docs]@cache(level=10) def get_window(window, Nx, *, fftbins=True): """Compute a window function. This is a wrapper for `scipy.signal.get_window` that additionally supports callable or pre-computed windows. Parameters ---------- window : string, tuple, number, callable, or list-like The window specification: - If string, it's the name of the window function (e.g., `'hann'`) - If tuple, it's the name of the window function and any parameters (e.g., `('kaiser', 4.0)`) - If numeric, it is treated as the beta parameter of the `'kaiser'` window, as in `scipy.signal.get_window`. - If callable, it's a function that accepts one integer argument (the window length) - If list-like, it's a pre-computed window of the correct length `Nx` Nx : int > 0 The length of the window fftbins : bool, optional If True (default), create a periodic window for use with FFT If False, create a symmetric window for filter design applications. Returns ------- get_window : np.ndarray A window of length `Nx` and type `window` See Also -------- scipy.signal.get_window Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. Raises ------ ParameterError If `window` is supplied as a vector of length != `n_fft`, or is otherwise mis-specified. """ if callable(window): return window(Nx) elif isinstance(window, (str, tuple)) or np.isscalar(window): # TODO: if we add custom window functions in librosa, call them here return scipy.signal.get_window(window, Nx, fftbins=fftbins) elif isinstance(window, (np.ndarray, list)): if len(window) == Nx: return np.asarray(window) raise ParameterError( "Window size mismatch: " "{:d} != {:d}".format(len(window), Nx) ) else: raise ParameterError("Invalid window specification: {}".format(window))
@cache(level=10) def _multirate_fb( center_freqs=None, sample_rates=None, Q=25.0, passband_ripple=1, stopband_attenuation=50, ftype="ellip", flayout="sos", ): r"""Helper function to construct a multirate filterbank. A filter bank consists of multiple band-pass filters which divide the input signal into subbands. In the case of a multirate filter bank, the band-pass filters operate with resampled versions of the input signal, e.g. to keep the length of a filter constant while shifting its center frequency. This implementation uses `scipy.signal.iirdesign` to design the filters. Parameters ---------- center_freqs : np.ndarray [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Center frequencies of the filter kernels. Also defines the number of filters in the filterbank. sample_rates : np.ndarray [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Samplerate for each filter (used for multirate filterbank). Q : float Q factor (influences the filter bandwidth). passband_ripple : float The maximum loss in the passband (dB) See `scipy.signal.iirdesign` for details. stopband_attenuation : float The minimum attenuation in the stopband (dB) See `scipy.signal.iirdesign` for details. ftype : str The type of IIR filter to design See `scipy.signal.iirdesign` for details. flayout : string Valid `output` argument for `scipy.signal.iirdesign`. - If `ba`, returns numerators/denominators of the transfer functions, used for filtering with `scipy.signal.filtfilt`. Can be unstable for high-order filters. - If `sos`, returns a series of second-order filters, used for filtering with `scipy.signal.sosfiltfilt`. Minimizes numerical precision errors for high-order filters, but is slower. - If `zpk`, returns zeros, poles, and system gains of the transfer functions. Returns ------- filterbank : list [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Each list entry comprises the filter coefficients for a single filter. sample_rates : np.ndarray [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Samplerate for each filter. Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. See Also -------- scipy.signal.iirdesign Raises ------ ParameterError If ``center_freqs`` is ``None``. If ``sample_rates`` is ``None``. If ``center_freqs.shape`` does not match ``sample_rates.shape``. """ if center_freqs is None: raise ParameterError("center_freqs must be provided.") if sample_rates is None: raise ParameterError("sample_rates must be provided.") if center_freqs.shape != sample_rates.shape: raise ParameterError( "Number of provided center_freqs and sample_rates must be equal." ) nyquist = 0.5 * sample_rates filter_bandwidths = center_freqs / float(Q) filterbank = [] for cur_center_freq, cur_nyquist, cur_bw in zip( center_freqs, nyquist, filter_bandwidths ): passband_freqs = [ cur_center_freq - 0.5 * cur_bw, cur_center_freq + 0.5 * cur_bw, ] / cur_nyquist stopband_freqs = [ cur_center_freq - cur_bw, cur_center_freq + cur_bw, ] / cur_nyquist cur_filter = scipy.signal.iirdesign( passband_freqs, stopband_freqs, passband_ripple, stopband_attenuation, analog=False, ftype=ftype, output=flayout, ) filterbank.append(cur_filter) return filterbank, sample_rates
[docs]@cache(level=10) def mr_frequencies(tuning): r"""Helper function for generating center frequency and sample rate pairs. This function will return center frequency and corresponding sample rates to obtain similar pitch filterbank settings as described in [#]_. Instead of starting with MIDI pitch `A0`, we start with `C0`. .. [#] Müller, Meinard. "Information Retrieval for Music and Motion." Springer Verlag. 2007. Parameters ---------- tuning : float [scalar] Tuning deviation from A440, measure as a fraction of the equally tempered semitone (1/12 of an octave). Returns ------- center_freqs : np.ndarray [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Center frequencies of the filter kernels. Also defines the number of filters in the filterbank. sample_rates : np.ndarray [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Sample rate for each filter, used for multirate filterbank. Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. See Also -------- librosa.filters.semitone_filterbank """ center_freqs = midi_to_hz(np.arange(24 + tuning, 109 + tuning)) sample_rates = np.asarray( len(np.arange(0, 36)) * [ 882, ] + len(np.arange(36, 70)) * [ 4410, ] + len(np.arange(70, 85)) * [ 22050, ] ) return center_freqs, sample_rates
[docs]def semitone_filterbank( *, center_freqs=None, tuning=0.0, sample_rates=None, flayout="ba", **kwargs ): r"""Construct a multi-rate bank of infinite-impulse response (IIR) band-pass filters at user-defined center frequencies and sample rates. By default, these center frequencies are set equal to the 88 fundamental frequencies of the grand piano keyboard, according to a pitch tuning standard of A440, that is, note A above middle C set to 440 Hz. The center frequencies are tuned to the twelve-tone equal temperament, which means that they grow exponentially at a rate of 2**(1/12), that is, twelve notes per octave. The A440 tuning can be changed by the user while keeping twelve-tone equal temperament. While A440 is currently the international standard in the music industry (ISO 16), some orchestras tune to A441-A445, whereas baroque musicians tune to A415. See [#]_ for details. .. [#] Müller, Meinard. "Information Retrieval for Music and Motion." Springer Verlag. 2007. Parameters ---------- center_freqs : np.ndarray [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Center frequencies of the filter kernels. Also defines the number of filters in the filterbank. tuning : float [scalar] Tuning deviation from A440 as a fraction of a semitone (1/12 of an octave in equal temperament). sample_rates : np.ndarray [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Sample rates of each filter in the multirate filterbank. flayout : string - If `ba`, the standard difference equation is used for filtering with `scipy.signal.filtfilt`. Can be unstable for high-order filters. - If `sos`, a series of second-order filters is used for filtering with `scipy.signal.sosfiltfilt`. Minimizes numerical precision errors for high-order filters, but is slower. **kwargs : additional keyword arguments Additional arguments to the private function `_multirate_fb()`. Returns ------- filterbank : list [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Each list entry contains the filter coefficients for a single filter. fb_sample_rates : np.ndarray [shape=(n,), dtype=float] Sample rate for each filter. See Also -------- librosa.cqt librosa.iirt librosa.filters.mr_frequencies scipy.signal.iirdesign Examples -------- >>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> import numpy as np >>> import scipy.signal >>> semitone_filterbank, sample_rates = librosa.filters.semitone_filterbank() >>> fig, ax = plt.subplots() >>> for cur_sr, cur_filter in zip(sample_rates, semitone_filterbank): ... w, h = scipy.signal.freqz(cur_filter[0], cur_filter[1], worN=2000) ... ax.semilogx((cur_sr / (2 * np.pi)) * w, 20 * np.log10(abs(h))) >>> ax.set(xlim=[20, 10e3], ylim=[-60, 3], title='Magnitude Responses of the Pitch Filterbank', ... xlabel='Log-Frequency (Hz)', ylabel='Magnitude (dB)') """ if (center_freqs is None) and (sample_rates is None): center_freqs, sample_rates = mr_frequencies(tuning) filterbank, fb_sample_rates = _multirate_fb( center_freqs=center_freqs, sample_rates=sample_rates, flayout=flayout, **kwargs ) return filterbank, fb_sample_rates
@jit(nopython=True, cache=True) def __window_ss_fill(x, win_sq, n_frames, hop_length): # pragma: no cover """Helper function for window sum-square calculation.""" n = len(x) n_fft = len(win_sq) for i in range(n_frames): sample = i * hop_length x[sample : min(n, sample + n_fft)] += win_sq[: max(0, min(n_fft, n - sample))]
[docs]def window_sumsquare( *, window, n_frames, hop_length=512, win_length=None, n_fft=2048, dtype=np.float32, norm=None, ): """Compute the sum-square envelope of a window function at a given hop length. This is used to estimate modulation effects induced by windowing observations in short-time Fourier transforms. Parameters ---------- window : string, tuple, number, callable, or list-like Window specification, as in `get_window` n_frames : int > 0 The number of analysis frames hop_length : int > 0 The number of samples to advance between frames win_length : [optional] The length of the window function. By default, this matches ``n_fft``. n_fft : int > 0 The length of each analysis frame. dtype : np.dtype The data type of the output norm : {np.inf, -np.inf, 0, float > 0, None} Normalization mode used in window construction. Note that this does not affect the squaring operation. Returns ------- wss : np.ndarray, shape=``(n_fft + hop_length * (n_frames - 1))`` The sum-squared envelope of the window function Examples -------- For a fixed frame length (2048), compare modulation effects for a Hann window at different hop lengths: >>> n_frames = 50 >>> wss_256 = librosa.filters.window_sumsquare(window='hann', n_frames=n_frames, hop_length=256) >>> wss_512 = librosa.filters.window_sumsquare(window='hann', n_frames=n_frames, hop_length=512) >>> wss_1024 = librosa.filters.window_sumsquare(window='hann', n_frames=n_frames, hop_length=1024) >>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> fig, ax = plt.subplots(nrows=3, sharey=True) >>> ax[0].plot(wss_256) >>> ax[0].set(title='hop_length=256') >>> ax[1].plot(wss_512) >>> ax[1].set(title='hop_length=512') >>> ax[2].plot(wss_1024) >>> ax[2].set(title='hop_length=1024') """ if win_length is None: win_length = n_fft n = n_fft + hop_length * (n_frames - 1) x = np.zeros(n, dtype=dtype) # Compute the squared window at the desired length win_sq = get_window(window, win_length) win_sq = util.normalize(win_sq, norm=norm) ** 2 win_sq = util.pad_center(win_sq, size=n_fft) # Fill the envelope __window_ss_fill(x, win_sq, n_frames, hop_length) return x
[docs]@cache(level=10) def diagonal_filter(window, n, *, slope=1.0, angle=None, zero_mean=False): """Build a two-dimensional diagonal filter. This is primarily used for smoothing recurrence or self-similarity matrices. Parameters ---------- window : string, tuple, number, callable, or list-like The window function to use for the filter. See `get_window` for details. Note that the window used here should be non-negative. n : int > 0 the length of the filter slope : float The slope of the diagonal filter to produce angle : float or None If given, the slope parameter is ignored, and angle directly sets the orientation of the filter (in radians). Otherwise, angle is inferred as `arctan(slope)`. zero_mean : bool If True, a zero-mean filter is used. Otherwise, a non-negative averaging filter is used. This should be enabled if you want to enhance paths and suppress blocks. Returns ------- kernel : np.ndarray, shape=[(m, m)] The 2-dimensional filter kernel Notes ----- This function caches at level 10. """ if angle is None: angle = np.arctan(slope) win = np.diag(get_window(window, n, fftbins=False)) if not np.isclose(angle, np.pi / 4): win = scipy.ndimage.rotate( win, 45 - angle * 180 / np.pi, order=5, prefilter=False ) np.clip(win, 0, None, out=win) win /= win.sum() if zero_mean: win -= win.mean() return win